1.1: Karnataka State is broadly classified into 4 regions viz North Interior Karnataka comprising 11 districts, South Interior Karnataka comprising 11 districts, Malnad region comprising 4 districts and coastal region comprising 3 districts.
The North Interior Karnataka region covers the districts of Bidar, Gulbarga, Raichur, Koppal, Bellary, Bijapur, Bagalkote, Belgaum, Gadag, Haveri and Dharwad.
The South Interior Karnataka region cover the districts of Kolar, Bangalore Rural, Bangalore Urban, Ramanagar, Chikballapur, Tumkur, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Chamarajanagar, Mysore and Mandya.
The Malnad regions covers a district of Shimoga, Hassan, Chikmagalur, Kodagu Districts.
The Coastal regions comprises of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada.
The Low pressure weather system which developed in the Bay of Bengal passed through Andhra Pradesh State and moved into Karnataka by 28th September 2009. The system got intensified and remained in North Interior Karnataka region from 29th September 2009 to 3rd October 2009. The 11 districts of North interior Karnataka and some parts of Coastal regions experienced exceptionally heavy rainfall of highest intensity causing unprecedented floods in the region. The details of the rainfall situation, losses and damages, Rescue and Rehabilitation measures undertaken are as follows:
2.The rainfall pattern during 28th September 2009 to 3rd October 2009.
2.1. The normal rainfall for the state during the said period is 37 mm and the actual rainfall received was 159 mm with departure from normal of 327%.
2.2. The North Interior Karnataka received average rainfall of 251 mm against the normal of 35 mm with departure from normal being 623%.
2.3. The South interior Karnataka received near normal rainfall of 37 mm. The Malnad region received 76 mm as against normal rainfall of 39 mm with departure of 93% from normal.
2.4. The Coastal Region received 232 mm against the normal of 54 mm with departure from normal being 329%.
2.5. The district wise rainfall pattern indicates 18 districts receiving very heavy rainfall with details as below:
|Sl.No.||District||Rainfall (mm) during 28th September to 3rd October 09|
During the period of 28th September 2009 to 3rd October 2009, a vast area comprising of 18 districts, 119 taluks and 472 hoblis in the state recorded excess rainfall. Nearly 63% of the geographical area in the state with a population of about 17.8 Million, were affected by floods and heavy rainfall incidences.
2. Monsoon Activity :
Vigorous Monsoon conditions prevailed in the districts of Bagalkote , Bijapur ,Raichur, Bellary, Gulbarga, Koppal, Gadag, Belgaum, Dharwad, Haveri and Bidar consecutively for 3 to 5 days (Fig 1).
3. Monsoon Distribution Pattern:
Wide spread heavy rainfall was recorded in all the 11 districts of north interior Karnataka, 4 districts of Malnad region, 3 districts of Coastal region, 7 districts of South interior Karnataka.
Wide spread vigorous monsoon conditions prevailed in the districts of North Interior Karnataka.(Fig 2).
4. Heavy rainfall incidences:
• Devarahipparagi in Bijapur district received 143 mm in 24 hours on 1st October 2009 which was the highest rainfall in a day during the past 100 years. The previous highest rainfall recorded was 135.8 mm on 17th Janury 1915.
• Gabbur in Deodurg taluk of Raichur district received 377 mm on 2nd October 2009 which is the highest rainfall received in 24 hours in the past 100 years. The previous such heavy rainfall incidence was on 30th September 1964 which was 234.9 mm.
• Hungund in Bagalkote district recorded 163 mm rainfall in 24 hours on 2nd October 2009 which is the 2nd highest rainfall recorded in a day in the past 100 years. The heaviest daily rainfall recorded was on 8th April 1937 which was 182.8 mm.
• Soundathi in Belgaum district recorded 156 mm rainfall in 24 hours on 1st October 2009, being the highest rainfall in day in the last 100 years. The previous heavy rainfall incidences were on 10th November 1916 (142.2 mm) and 11th November 1927 (139.7 mm).
• Karwar in Uttara Kannada district received 433 mm in 24 hours on 3rd October 2009 which was the 3rd highest rainfall in a day in the last 100 years. The previous such heavy rainfall incidences were on 12th June 1999 ( 469.3 mm ) and 29 May 2006 (439.8mm).
• The 24 hours heavy rainfall recorded in to 24 hours in Raichur districts were 327.8 mm at Kallur in Manvi taluk, 363.5 mm at Kalmala in Raichur taluk, 302 mm at Balganur in Sindanur taluk, 310.5 mm.at Jawalgeri in Sindanur taluk and 300 mm at Walkamdinni.
• The total rainfall during 28th September to 3rd October was 541 mm at Gabbur in Deodurg taluk, 500 mm at Kallur in Manvi taluk, 515 mm at Kalmali in Raichur taluk, 417 to 500 mm in Hoblis of Sindanur taluk. About 70% of the normal annual rainfall was received in just 6 days during 20th September to 2nd October 2009 in these areas.
• Similarly the districts of Bellary, Koppal, Gulbarga, Bijapur, Bagalkote recorded exceptionally very heavy rainfall during 28th September to 3rd October 2009 with peak rainfall activity on 30th September and 2nd October 2009. The details of District wise/Taluk wise/hobli wise heavy rainfall incidences are provided in figure 3.
5. Time series analysis of the present rainfall situation:
The rainfall during the week ending on 4th October 2009 was the highest since 1970 as recorded at Bagalkote (812%), Bijapur(790%), Raichur (753%), Koppal (671%), Bellary (578%), Gadag(499%), Belgaum(492%), Gulbarga(427%), Dharwad (356%), Uttara Kannada (420%), Udupi(357%). The departure of rainfall from normal at Davanagere being 257% was the 2nd highest since 1970.
The departure of rainfall from normal for the week ending on 4th October 2009 in North Interior Karnataka is compared with the corresponding period since 1970. The departure of rainfall from normal of 555% is 2.5 times more than the earlier such heavy rainfall incidence in 1994 wherein the departure of rainfall from normal was 221%.
The rainfall for the week ending on 4th October 2009 in Coastal region as is the highest since 1970.
The rainfall for the week ending 4th October 2009 for Karnataka State is the highest since 1970.
6. Rainfall pattern during September 2009.
The State received excess rainfall during September 2009. As against the normal rainfall of 160 mm, the State received 271 mm with departure from normal of 70%. All the 27 districts in the State recorded excess rainfall. The taluk wise rainfall pattern indicate excess rainfall in 164 taluks out of total number of taluks in 176 in the State. The hobli wise rainfall patternindicates excess rainfall 642 hoblis against the total hoblis of 747 in the State. (Fig 4)
7. Damages and Losses:
The areas affected by floods and heavy rainfall associated with circulation of low pressure weather system includes 15 districts and highest priority has been given to the rescue and relief operations. The actual assessment of damages and losses is in progress and has been somewhat hampered by large areas being inundated. The preliminary losses as assessed on 04.10.2009 is as follows( the actual losses is expected to be much higher and would be known only after the flood water recede).
Human lives lost : 194
Loss of livestocks : 5,266
Houses damaged : 2,39,852
Crop area damaged : 25 lakh hectares (appx).
9. Rescue and Relief (as on 04.10.2009):
• 1,558 relief camps are opened and 3,55,769 people are being provided with food and shelter.
• 12 I.A.F Helicopters have been deployed for rescue operations
• 220 NDRF personnel with 329 Boats and 20 MEG personnel have been deployed for rescue operations.
• 20,00,000 food packets have been distributed.
The assessment of losses has been taken up and it is possible to complete the same after receding of the flood waters. However first approximation of the losses is as follows:
1. Damages to roads, bridges, culverts : 5000 crores
2. Damages to houses: 1000 crores
3. Crop losses :2500 crores
4. Immediate Relief to population affected:1500 crores
5. Damages to electric installation : 500 crores
6. Villages infrastructure reconstruction including
drains, roads, school buildings, community utilities :1500 crores
7. Protective embankments :1000 crores
8. Damages to tanks and irrigation canals :3500crores
The total preliminary losses is about Rs. 16,500/- Crores
Assistance sought from Government of India:
1. An interim relief of Rs.10,000/- Crores is sought from the Government of India for Relief and restoration of damaged infrastructure in the affected areas.
2. A Central Study Team may be immediately deputed to the flood affected areas of Karnataka to assess the damages.
3. The disaster may be declared as a “ National Calamity” considering the severity, vastness of the affected area and the distress caused to the community.